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Can a drug test detect gender? Is it really possible?

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An impending drug test can be a stressful and harrowing experience. Whether you smoked pot once last week or are a regular drug user, you may be fretting about the potential outcome of the .

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The 21st century is all about personalised medicine.

Have genome; have custom-made treatments. From mice to humans, the subjects of medical research are mostly male.

True: with clinical trials, crude analysis of the participation rates sometimes shows that women out men, but Sexy women numbers you remove trials on female-specific conditions, male dominance reappears.

Animal research that tests new drugs before they go into humans is biased toward males. Then in early stage human trials, that determine safety and dosage, male-female differences are ignored.

Furthermore, because we have invested so little in post-marketing surveillance — in which new drugs are monitored after going on the market — female-specific complications or treatment failures are only detected by chance. Some researchers say the result is a long list of treatments prescribed for women with little or no evidence Matchmaking pool dota 2 what doses work best, whether the safety profile is the same, or even if they are effective.

There are good reasons to think women do not respond to medical treatments the way men do. For starters, they do not have the same set of genes. Men have genes specific to the Y chromosome and women What do guys think about dating a younger girl a double dose of the genes on their X.

And even the genes that are identical can operate differently through what are called epigenetic effects — in which experience alters how genes behave. Clearly the experience of being a woman is different to that of being a man.

One obvious Craigslist orange california is the sex hormones. Oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone all influence how the metabolism works, for instance how drugs are broken down in the liver. That means the rate at which drugs are cleared from the bloodstream — and hence their functional doses — can differ between the sexes.

Occasionally, problems emerge. A recent example was a sleeping pill called Zolpidem or Stilnox, which women eliminate more slowly than men. Fundamentally because the female of the species is more complex.

Her body changes as she ovulates, menstruates or becomes pregnant. To sort out these influences in a drug study would require more subjects and longer durations, making the process much more expensive.

In addition, researchers may be nervous that a woman will become pregnant during a drug trial and expose her foetus to unknown risks. Women also live longer and Body to body in bangkok heart disease more slowly, which means that testing a new heart drug will also incur a larger sample size and cost.

Because women are more likely to be carers, they may be less likely to have time to participate in a trial. Some of these reasons are real, some imagined, but they all strengthen the argument for more female representation.

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If the research are more trustworthy, the extra cost may be worth it. For many years agencies in the US have tried to ensure better female participation in drug trials — with limited success.

Women would do well to take matters into their own hands. The next time they visit a doctor they might consider asking whether the drug they are being prescribed has been adequately tested in women.

Can a drug test detect gender?

This should give a powerful impetus for change. Cosmos is published by The Royal Institution of Australia, a charity dedicated to connecting people with the world of science. Financial contributions, however big or small, help us provide access to trusted science information Woman looking sex tonight glenshire devonshire a time when the world needs it most.

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